Consistent with the results of Archibald and colleagues 2001 , the study detected disproportionate reductions in the brain s white matter, which contains the nerve cells extensions i. Below are two that I think are worth checking out. There are three stages of prenatal development— germinal, embryonic, and fetal. Prenatal development is the process that occurs during the 40 weeks prior to the birth of a child. Proper nutrition does not mean simply enough food, but the right kinds of food, including milk, fruits, vegetables and protein.
Examples of these teratogens can include mercury, potassium iodide, nuclear fallout radiation, and even high-temperature hot tubs! Physicians and scientists gathered evidence in the early 1990s which supported their theories that there was an association between the high fevers of pregnant women and congenital abnormalities, such as cardiac defects, abdominal wall defects, or a disruption of the enervation of the large intestine called Hirschsprung disease, in their offspring. If a pregnant woman is exposed to toxoplasma, the fetus may be killed or suffer damage to nerve tissue, leading to brain malformation, seizures, or blindness. Jones examined a group of children at the University of Washington's Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington in 1973. At this stage, the fetus is about the size of a kidney bean and begins to take on the recognizable form of a human being. Other factors that can put a person at risk for prenatal depression include unplanned pregnancy, difficulty becoming pregnant, history of abuse, and economic or family problems. In addition, the majority of these adolescents and adults display significant maladaptive behaviors e.
By 28 weeks, thalamic brain connections form, which mediate sensory input. The common anomalies were small head circumference, or , and small eyes, or microphthalmia. In some cases, however, the exposure may result in an infection that can affect the baby while in the womb. Most of the research conducted among alcohol-exposed children and adolescents has focused on either the structural or behavioral effects. After about nine weeks, an embryo becomes a fetus. The developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for life, and it is important that the mother receives prenatal care, which is medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus. Moreover, they are more likely than non-alcohol-exposed children to be rated as hyperactive, disruptive, impulsive, or delinquent Roebuck et al.
For example, skills such as the ability to shift from one task to another, inhibition of inappropriate behavior, and spatial memory, which are impaired in people with prenatal alcohol exposure, have been related to the basal ganglia in other populations, such as patients with Huntington s disease Mattson et al. Kelsey requested more clinical test results after she received reports of the adverse effects of thalidomide in Europe. Figure1: Brain areas affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. These could be saunas, hot tubs, or infections that raise a pregnant woman's body temperature to 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. As a result, researchers can study the whole brain at once, rather than focus on specific brain regions, and therefore can localize brain abnormalities more easily than with previous techniques. Brain growth during this period allows the fetus to develop new behaviors.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is more common on reservations, and in the upper midwest states, two areas with higher rates of alcoholism than the national average. Mitosis is a fragile process, and fewer than one-half of all zygotes survive beyond the first two weeks Hall, 2004. More recent studies have suggested a possible link between prenatal smoking exposure and behavioral problems in later childhood and adolescence. These effects can result in a baby being born with a birth defect. Summary So we've talked about how prenatal development is related to psychology.
When a mother is under stress, physiological changes occur in the body that could harm the developing fetus. These functional data support the structural data, such as the reduced size of the caudate nucleus, suggesting that subcortical brain regions may be especially sensitive to prenatal alcohol insult. While all this is happening, the zygote heads down to the uterus and tries to attach itself to one of the walls. Because the brain develops throughout pregnancy, children could be mentally retarded due to rubella, even if they were neither deaf nor blind,because their mothers had contracted the infection after their eyes and ears had already developed. It is unknown how much alcohol is necessary to cause damage, and so doctors typically recommend that alcohol should be completely avoided during pregnancy. Thalidomide had been patented in 1954 and was approved for use in Europe as a sedative and anti-nausea medicine for pregnant women. Infections such as those caused by rubella virus, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis, are a third kind of teratogen.
The student will understand the major theories of child development and how they apply. These developmental problems and delays persist into adulthood Streissguth et al. One activity that we did in class that met this standard was the Developmental Study Partner Activities. Embryo: During the germinal stage of prenatal development, the cells necessary for the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid will differentiate to form the embryo. When I lived in North Dakota, I made it a point to ask teenage girls what they thought would happen if they drank during pregnancy.
In the 2000s, The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada reviewed reports from 1990 to 2005 on the risk of congenital anomalies in pregnancies caused by pre-existing or gestational diabetes. Depending on the dominance of each chromosome that is inherited from each parent, the child may or may not show the inherited trait. This lifespan development is organized into different stages based on age. Results from Brain Imaging Studies The neuropsychological and behavioral deficits described in the previous section represent real-life manifestations of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. The word teratogen originates from the Greek word for monster, teratos. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 22 2 : 339 344, 1998.
The fetus can distinguish between voices, and can remember songs and certain sounds after birth. People had sought explanations for abnormal human and animal development, however, for centuries, and they had developed different theories about the causes for the abnormalities. Development from Zygote to Fetus First, let's cover some of the basics. A teratogen may cause a birth defect, malformation, or terminate the pregnancy altogether. Teratogens Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or after the pregnant woman is exposed to the substance. Because blood circulating from the mother is the only way the fetus can get oxygen, this leads to hypoxia, or low flow of oxygen, and the fetus effectively suffocates.
For example, people with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure may act without first considering the consequences of their behavior or they may have difficulties with activities that require problem solving or with planning a sequence of activities. Geneticists specialize in the effects of teratogens on fetuses and can help you assess your actual risk given a specific exposure. Meckel examined anatomical defects and their causes. For this reason, the benefits of developmental psychology obtain the knowledge in human development. Prenatal development is also organized into three equal trimesters, which do not correspond with the three stages.