There are different methods to develop courses of action. Displaying details of the operation order using terrain enlargements is more effective than using a 1:50,000 scale map. If the amount of forces available exceeds the amount required, the staff uses the excess to weight the main effort or place them in reserve. The S-3 selects the technique box, avenue in depth, or belt and the starting point. . Analyzing critical events and associated tasks requires staff officers to understand the capabilities of their type of unit and equipment and like enemy units.
Although critical events are identified during this step, some are identified prior to wargaming. Definition All of the above. The conversion to the more complex and numerous diagnostic and procedural codes launched with than many pundits expected. Decision points identify where the commander must decide to initiate an activity call for fire, displace a subordinate maneuver unit to ensure synchronized execution. Once subordinate commands are determined, the S-3 adds the minimum graphic control measures to control the operation, achieve synchronization or minimize the force's exposure to fratricide.
This staff interaction is key to detailed planning. Each is then analyzed by the entire staff. It analyzes selected critical events, those considered most important to the staff, given the available amount of time. Post the situation template for the selected enemy course of action and friendly unit dispositions on overlays, then cover the map with acetate. What is the secondary role of these complex training events? Definition All of the above.
When the S-2 presents the situation template, he is giving the commander what he believes is the probable enemy course of action. Definition operational planning process Term At what point in the overall design and planning process should commanders and planners consider integrating lethal and nonlethal actions? Then add the situation template and cover the sketch with acetate. The course of action that best meets the criterion is ranked No. However, if time is short, the staff only considers the combat assets that have the highest probability of influencing the outcome of the battle. The S-3 has developed a possible course of action when he completes this step. All previous steps prepare the staff for this one, which requires the staff to visualize the battle and determine what actions to accomplish to succeed in the mission.
Examples of critical events that can be identified in advance for a defensive operation are reward passage of counter reconnaissance forces, commitment of the reserve, displacement of forces, and initiation of the counterattack. The S-3 lists the friendly forces available, identified during mission analysis, while the staff assists him by listing all combat, combat support, and combat service support units. As the staff war-games a critical event, an assistant writes notes about the specific actions, locations, and tasks taking place. Definition Design is often abbreviated during emerging crises, and commanders may not fully develop their operational approach due to severe time constraints. To develop a complete course of action, the staff must identify what, when, where, how, and why the unit will execute. Together with the staff he identifies unit boundaries, axes of advance and fire control measures.
The commander, recognizing courses of action that do not adhere to his planning guidance or are not feasible, responds by having the staff do the work again, which wastes time. The staff does not assign missions to arrayed units but gains an appreciation for the amount of forces to allocate to accomplish the mission. Term In general, what effect can emerging crises have on design? Each staff officer also assists the S-2 in determining how the enemy would respond to his action. Critical events are essential tasks within the course of action that require detailed analysis. The assumptions provided by the staff are those identified during the development of estimates.
Definition Joint force headquarters should understand how they fit into the decision cycles of other units across the three event horizons. For example, an armor heavy task force organized with three armor and one mechanized company compared to a single enemy armor company would have a force ratio of 4:1, before considering any other combat multipliers. Wargaming results in the identification of tasks, combat power requirements, critical events and priority efforts, task organization and command and support relationships, decision points and possible fratricide locations. This sequence is continued until the critical event and all others are completed. The sequence of the wargame begins with friendly action followed by enemy reaction followed by friendly counteraction. If the amount of forces available is less than the amount required, the staff plans for shortfalls and the use of combat multipliers close air support, smoke, command, control and communications countermeasures.
The first tool required is a planning map or sketch of the area of operations. Definition To provide an intensive venue for the focused, structured dialogue that drives design and subsequent planning. The staff begins by listing all friendly forces. Once the array is completed, the staff has an idea of the amount of forces required. The most lengthy, but effective, technique for the whole force is the belt, because it enhances synchronization by analyzing all forces that affect specific events. Term How can joint force headquarters ensure unified action within the multi-echelon process? The lowest score identifies the course of action that best fulfills the criteria and will be recommended to the commander. Detailed analysis during comparison identifies a course of action that satisfies the criteria better than one the staff believed was best.
He then repeats the procedure until he develops the number of courses of action specified by the commander. This technique requires more time than the previous techniques, as it analyzes more critical events within the area of operation. The commander will identify specific units when he decides on the task organization. The staff develops criteria for comparison using commanders' guidance, critical events, and other significant factors pertaining to the mission. Because of the importance of its results, and the time it requires, more time is allocated than for any other step. Definition The design efforts conducted during deliberate planning manifest their worth at initiation of crisis action planning. The S-3 draws boxes around the critical events so the staff knows which will be analyzed.
The quickest method to determine which course of action best meets the criteria is to quantify them ranking each one. Definition The problem statement should not pose a solution, accounts for current circumstances and does not predict what future actions may occur. The relative-force ratio is a correlation of friendly combat power and enemy combat power determined by adding and comparing similar subordinate units. Definition Advances in information technology have enabled collaborative and decentralized approaches to better understand the operational environment. Additionally, it can better synchronize the course of action when the entire staff is involved in wargaming.